Nanotechnology: Principles and Practices by Sulabha K. Kulkarni - A Review
Nanotechnology is a rapidly evolving field that encompasses the study and manipulation of matter at the nanoscale. Nanomaterials have unique properties that differ from their bulk counterparts, and offer potential applications in various domains such as electronics, energy, medicine, cosmetics and textiles. However, nanotechnology also poses challenges and risks for the environment and human health.
One of the most comprehensive and up-to-date textbooks on nanomaterials and nanotechnology is Nanotechnology: Principles and Practices by Sulabha K. Kulkarni, a professor of physics at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research in Pune, India. The book, which is now in its third edition, covers the whole range of multidisciplinary topics related to nanotechnology, from the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and solid state physics, to the synthesis, characterization and applications of nanomaterials.
The book is divided into 14 chapters, each of which is well-organized and illustrated with figures, tables and examples. The first two chapters introduce the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics and structure and bonding of atoms and molecules. The next three chapters describe the physical, chemical and biological methods for synthesizing nanomaterials, such as top-down and bottom-up approaches, self-assembly, sol-gel, chemical vapor deposition, biological synthesis and green chemistry. Chapter 6 discusses the analysis techniques for studying nanostructures, such as microscopy, spectroscopy, diffraction and scattering methods. Chapter 7 presents the types of nanomaterials and their properties, such as zero-dimensional (quantum dots), one-dimensional (nanowires), two-dimensional (nanosheets) and three-dimensional (nanocomposites) nanostructures, as well as their thermal, mechanical, optical and magnetic characteristics. Chapter 8 explains the concept of nanolithography and its techniques, such as photolithography, electron beam lithography, soft lithography and nanoimprint lithography. Chapter 9 explores the field of nanoelectronics and its devices, such as transistors, diodes, sensors, memory devices and quantum dots. Chapter 10 introduces some special nanomaterials that have attracted a lot of attention in recent years, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, nanodiamonds, metamaterials and plasmonic nanostructures. Chapter 11 illustrates the various applications of nanomaterials in different domains, such as optoelectronics, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers, photodetectors, displays, cosmetics, energy storage (batteries and supercapacitors), fuel cells,
Chapter 12 focuses on the applications of nanotechnology in medicine, one of the most promising and exciting areas of nanoscience. Nanomedicine involves the use of nanoparticles for diagnosis, imaging, drug delivery, gene therapy, biosensors, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Some examples of nanomedicine are: gold nanoparticles for cancer detection and photothermal therapy; quantum dots for fluorescence imaging and biosensing; liposomes and dendrimers for targeted drug delivery; magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and hyperthermia; carbon nanotubes for drug delivery and biosensing; nanoshells for drug delivery and photothermal therapy; nanowires for biosensing and electrical stimulation; and nanofibers for tissue engineering and wound healing. The book also discusses the challenges and risks of nanomedicine, such as toxicity, biocompatibility, biodistribution, bioaccumulation and ethical issues.
Chapter 13 addresses the impact of nanotechnology on the environment and human health. The book reviews the sources, fate and transport of nanoparticles in the environment, as well as their effects on living organisms. The book also highlights the potential benefits of nanotechnology for environmental remediation, such as nanocatalysts, nanosensors, nanofilters and nanobioremediation. The book emphasizes the need for a precautionary approach and a life cycle assessment of nanomaterials to ensure their safe and sustainable development and use.
Chapter 14 provides a helpful guide to setting up and conducting inexpensive nanotechnology experiments in teaching laboratories. The book describes some simple and low-cost experiments that demonstrate the principles and applications of nanotechnology, such as synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction, synthesis of gold nanoparticles by green chemistry, synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles by sol-gel method, synthesis of carbon nanotubes by arc discharge method, characterization of nanoparticles by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), measurement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of gold nanoparticles, measurement of photoluminescence (PL) of quantum dots, measurement of electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes, measurement of magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles, measurement of antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles, measurement of drug release from liposomes, measurement of DNA hybridization using gold nanoparticles, measurement of glucose level using gold nanoparticles, measurement of blood pressure using carbon nanotubes, and fabrication of a dye-sensitized solar cell using titanium dioxide nanoparticles.
In conclusion, Nanotechnology: Principles and Practices by Sulabha K. Kulkarni is a valuable textbook for students, researchers and professionals who are interested in learning about the fascinating world of nanomaterials and nanotechnology. The book covers a wide range of topics in a clear and concise manner, with numerous examples, figures and tables to illustrate the concepts. The book also offers a balanced perspective on the benefits and risks of nanotechnology for society and the environment. The book is available as a hardcover or an e-book from SpringerLink[^1^], or as a PDF or EPUB file from OceanofPDF[^2^]. aa16f39245